CCSVI as the Cause of Multiple Sclerosis

The Science Behind the Controversial Theory


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About the Book

Changes are occurring in the multiple sclerosis community. The disease, which has always been considered autoimmune, may be related to vascular problems, in which circulation in the cerebrospinal system is impaired, thereby preventing the proper drainage of venous blood from the brain. This timely book includes a history of MS, an explanation of autoimmunity, and examines the recent research relating to this new theory of MS and how the venous model compares to the standard model of the disease. It also offers practical suggestions for people with MS who wish to seek evaluation and possible treatment under the new model, as well as a chapter detailing experiences of some people who have recently received treatment.

About the Author(s)

Marie A. Rhodes is a registered nurse and has MS. She was the second person treated for CCSVI in the U.S. She is on the volunteer patient board for CCSVI Alliance, a non profit organization working to advance understanding of this treatment.

Elaine A. Moore has worked in hospital laboratories for more than 30 years, primarily in immunohematology and toxicology. She is a freelance medical writer and laboratory consultant. For more information, visit her website at She lives in Sedalia, Colorado.

Bibliographic Details

Marie A. Rhodes

Series Editor Elaine A. Moore

Format: softcover (6 x 9)
Pages: 257
Bibliographic Info: 20 illustrations, appendix, glossary, bibliography, index
Copyright Date: 2011
pISBN: 978-0-7864-6038-0
eISBN: 978-0-7864-8628-1
Imprint: McFarland
Series: McFarland Health Topics

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments      vii
Foreword by E. Mark Haacke      1
Preface—How to Use This Book      3
Introduction      5

1. The Politics of Change      9
2. Multiple Sclerosis: History and Epidemiology      31
3. The Immune System and Autoimmunity in MS      57
4. CCSVI Theory: MS as a Vascular Disease      82
5. Evidence of Venous Changes in Multiple Sclerosis      106
6. Endovascular Treatment: The “Liberation” Procedure      134
7. Patient Stories      167
8. Resources      188

Appendix: Understanding the Haacke Imaging Protocol Report      203
Glossary      213
References      223
Index      243